A.          Glossary

       

The CMMI glossary defines many of the basic terms used in the CMMI models. Glossary entries are typically multiple-word terms consisting of a noun and one or more restrictive modifiers (e.g., instead of defining “tailoring,” the following are defined: “CMMI model tailoring,” “CMMI appraisal tailoring,” and “tailoring guidelines”). (There are some exceptions to this rule that account for one-word terms in the glossary.)  [FM113.T101]

The glossary was developed using defined criteria for the selection of terms and definitions. Some terms were not included in the glossary because they were used in only one process area or because the term was used in an everyday sense. In either case, the use of the term is explained in the process area.  [FM113.T102]

To be considered for inclusion in the glossary of CMMI models, terms must meet all of the following conditions:  [FM113.T103]

Condition 1 - The entry must appear in the CMMI models. The glossary does not include words that are self explanatory in the context of the CMMI product or that, through popular use, already are widely understood by model users. Terms only used as examples and which were not concepts critical to the use of CMMI models were also excluded. However, if there was any doubt as to how widely understood a term was, the term was included in the glossary.  [FM113.T104]

Condition 2 - The definition of the term is not satisfied by common dictionary definition(s). The best reference source for term definitions is a standard English dictionary. Therefore, once a term was identified in the CMMI Product Suite, it (or its component words) was searched for in Miriam-Webster’s Online Collegiate Dictionary (http://www.m-w.com). If the definition found there accurately characterized how the term was being used in CMMI products, the term was left out of the glossary because there was no compelling need to replicate common definitions found in the Webster’s dictionary.  [FM113.T105]

Condition 3 - In some instances, terms used in the CMMI models are unique to the CMMI context. In these instances, original definitions not found in other contexts were created. When selecting or creating CMMI definitions, great care was taken to ensure that the definitions did not have any of the following characteristics:  [FM113.T106]

·           Circular definitions

·           Self-defining definitions wherein a term is used to define itself

·           Terms that are differentiated when they really are synonyms according to the standard English dictionary

·           Overly restrictive definitions that would hinder use of the terms generally understood by the public in more commonplace situations

·           Definitions that provide explanatory information that more rightly belong elsewhere in a model

When selecting definitions for terms in the CMMI glossary, definitions from recognized sources were used where possible. Definitions were first selected from existing sources that have a widespread readership. If a definition was selected from one of these sources, a note at the end of the definition in brackets (for example, [ISO 9000]) was included. The order of precedence used when selecting definitions was as follows:  [FM113.T109]

1. Webster’s Dictionary
2. ISO/IEC 9000
3. ISO/IEC 12207
4. ISO/IEC 15504
5. ISO/IEC 15288
6. CMMI Source Models
  [FM113.T115]

·            IPD-CMM v0.98

·            EIA/IS 731 (SECM)

·            SW-CMM v 2, draft C

7. CMMI A-Spec
8. IEEE
9. SW-CMM v1.1
10.
EIA 632
11. SA-CMM
12. FAA-CMM
13. P-CMM  [FM113.T116]

The Glossary was developed recognizing the importance of using terminology that all model users can understand. It is also recognized that words and terms can have different meanings in different contexts and environments. The glossary in CMMI models is designed to document the meanings of words and terms that should have the widest use and understanding by users of CMMI products.  [FM113.T117]

 

 

ability to perform

A common feature of CMMI model process areas with a staged representation that groups the generic practices related to ensuring that the project and/or organization has the resources it needs.

acceptance criteria

The criteria that a product or product component must satisfy to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity.

acceptance testing

Formal testing conducted to enable a user, customer, or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a product or product component. (See “unit testing.”)

achievement profile

In the continuous representation, a list of process areas and their corresponding capability levels that represent the organization's progress for each process area while advancing through the capability levels. (See “target staging,” “capability level profile,” and “target profile.”)

acquisition

The process of obtaining, through contract, any discrete action or proposed action by the acquisition entity that would commit to invest (appropriated funds) for obtaining products and services.

acquisition strategy

The specific approach to acquiring products and services that is based on considerations of supply sources, acquisition methods, requirements specification types, contract or agreement types, and the related acquisition risk.

adequate

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “adequate,” “appropriate,” and “as needed” are used in the CMMI Product Suite.

advanced practices

In the continuous representation, all the specific practices with a capability level of two or higher.

agreement/contract requirements

All technical and nontechnical requirements related to an acquisition.

allocated requirement

Requirement that levies all or part of the performance and functionality of a higher level requirement on a lower level architectural element or design component.

alternative practice

A practice that is a substitute for one or more generic or specific practices contained in CMMI models that achieves an equivalent effect toward satisfying the generic or specific goal associated with model practices. Alternative practices are not necessarily one-for-one replacements for the generic or specific practices.

appraisal

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “appraisal” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

appraisal findings

The conclusions of an appraisal that identify the most important issues, problems, or opportunities within the appraisal scope. Findings include, at a minimum, strengths and weaknesses based on valid observations.

appraisal participants

Members of the organizational unit who participate in providing information during the appraisal.

appraisal rating

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, the value assigned by an appraisal team to either (1) a CMMI goal or process area, (2) the capability level of a process area, or (3) the maturity level of an organizational unit. The rating is determined by enacting the defined rating process for the appraisal method being employed.

appraisal reference model

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, the CMMI model to which an appraisal team correlates implemented process activities.

appraisal scope

The definition of the boundaries of the appraisal encompassing the organizational limits and the CMMI model limits.

appraisal team leader

A person who leads the activities of an appraisal and has satisfied the qualification criteria for experience, knowledge, and skills defined by the appraisal method.

appropriate

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “adequate,” “appropriate,” and “as needed” are used in the CMMI Product Suite.

as needed

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “adequate,” “appropriate,” and “as needed” are used in the CMMI Product Suite.

assessment

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “assessment” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

assignable cause of process variation

In CMMI, the term “special cause of process variation” is used in place of “assignable cause of process variation” to ensure consistency. Both terms are defined identically. (See “special cause of process variation.”)

audit

In CMMI process-improvement work, an independent examination of a work product or set of work products to determine whether requirements are being met.

 

 

base measure

A distinct property or characteristic of an entity and the method for quantifying it. (See “derived measures.”)

base practices

In the continuous representation, all the specific practices with a capability level of 1.

baseline

(See “configuration baseline,” “process performance baseline,” and “product baseline.”)

business objectives

(See “organization’s business objectives.”)

 

 

capability evaluation

An appraisal by a trained team of professionals used as a discriminator to select suppliers, for contract monitoring, or for incentives. Evaluations are used to help decision makers make better acquisition decisions, improve subcontractor performance, and provide insight to a purchasing organization.

capability level

Achievement of process improvement within an individual process area. A capability level is defined by the appropriate specific and generic practices for a process area. (See “maturity level,” “process area,” generic practice,” and “generic goal.”)

capability level profile

In the continuous representation, a list of process areas and their corresponding capability levels. (See “target staging,” “capability level profile,” “achievement profile,” and “target profile.”) The profile may be an achievement profile when it represents the organization's progress for each process area while advancing through the capability levels. Or, the profile may be a target profile when it represents an objective for process improvement.

capability maturity model

A capability maturity model (CMM) contains the essential elements of effective processes for one or more disciplines. It also describes an evolutionary improvement path from ad hoc, immature processes to disciplined, mature processes with improved quality and effectiveness.

capable process

A process that can satisfy its specified product quality, service quality, and process performance objectives. (See “stable process,” “standard process,” and “statistically managed process.”)

causal analysis

The analysis of defects to determine their cause.

change management

Judicious use of means to effect a change, or proposed change, on a product or service. (See “configuration management.”)

CMMI appraisal tailoring

Selection of options within the appraisal method for use in a specific instance.

The intent of appraisal tailoring is to assist an organization in aligning application of the method with its business objectives.

CMMI Framework

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “CMMI Framework” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

CMMI model

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “CMMI model” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

CMMI model component

Any of the main architectural elements that compose a CMMI model. Some of the main elements of a CMMI model include specific practices, generic practices, specific goals, generic goals, process areas, capability levels, and maturity levels.

CMMI model tailoring

The use of a subset of a CMMI model for the purpose of making it suitable for a specific application. The intent of model tailoring is to assist an organization in aligning application of a model with its business objectives.

CMMI Product Suite

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “CMMI Product Suite” is used in the CMMI Product Suite. (See “CMMI Framework.”)

commitment to perform

A common feature of CMMI model process areas with a staged representation that groups the generic practices related to creating policies and securing sponsorship.

common cause of process variation

The variation of a process that exists because of normal and expected interactions among the components of a process. (See “special cause of process variation.”)

concept of operations

(See “operational concept.”)

configuration audit

An audit conducted to verify that a configuration item conforms to a specified standard or requirement. (See “audit” and “configuration item.”)

configuration baseline

The configuration information formally designated at a specific time during a product's or product component's life. Configuration baselines, plus approved changes from those baselines, constitute the current configuration information. (See “product life cycle.”)

configuration control

An element of configuration management consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. (See “configuration management,” “configuration identification,” and “configuration item.”)

configuration control board

A group of people responsible for evaluating and approving or disapproving proposed changes to configuration items, and for ensuring implementation of approved changes. (See “configuration item.”) Configuration control boards are also known as “change control boards.”

configuration identification

An element of configuration management consisting of selecting the configuration items for a product, assigning unique identifiers to them, and recording their functional and physical characteristics in technical documentation. (See “configuration management,” “configuration item,” and “product.”)

configuration item

An aggregation of work products that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. (See “configuration management.”)

configuration management

A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to (1) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, (2) control changes to those characteristics, (3) record and report change processing and implementation status, and (4) verify compliance with specified requirements. [IEEE Std 610.1990] (See “configuration identification,” “configuration control,” “configuration status accounting,” and “configuration audit.”)

configuration status accounting

An element of configuration management consisting of the recording and reporting of information needed to manage a configuration effectively. This information includes a listing of the approved configuration identification, the status of proposed changes to the configuration, and the implementation status of approved changes. (See “configuration management” and “configuration identification.”)

continuous representation

A capability maturity model structure wherein capability levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement within each specified process area. (See “staged representation,” “capability level,” and “process area.”)

contractor

(See “supplier.”)

corrective action

Acts or deeds used to remedy a situation, remove an error, or adjust a condition.

COTS

Items that can be purchased from a commercial vendor. (COTS stands for “commercial off the shelf.”)

customer

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “customer” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

 

 

data management

Principles, processes, and systems for the sharing and management of data.

defect density

Number of defects per unit of product size (e.g., problem reports per 1000 lines of code).

defined process

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “defined process” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

derived measures

Data resulting from the mathematical function of two or more base measures. (See “base measure.”)

derived requirements

Requirements that are not explicitly stated in the customer requirements, but are inferred (1) from contextual requirements (e.g., applicable standards, laws, policies, common practices, and management decisions), or (2) from requirements needed to specify a product component. Derived requirements can also arise during analysis and design of components of the product or system. (See “product requirements.”)

design review

A formal, documented, comprehensive, and systematic examination of a design to evaluate the design requirements and the capability of the design to meet these requirements, and to identify problems and propose solutions.

development

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “development” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

developmental plan

A plan for guiding, implementing, and controlling the design and development of one or more products. (See “project plan” and “product life cycle.”)

directing implementation

A common feature of CMMI model process areas with a staged representation that groups the generic practices related to managing the performance of the process, managing the integrity of its work products, and involving relevant stakeholders.

discipline amplification

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “discipline amplification” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

 

 

enterprise

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “enterprise” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

entry criteria

States of being that must be present before an effort can begin successfully.

equivalent staging

Equivalent staging is a target staging, created using the continuous representation that is defined so that the results of using the target staging can be compared to the maturity levels of the staged representation. (See “target staging,” “maturity level,” “capability level profile,” and “target profile.”)

Such staging permits benchmarking of progress among organizations, enterprises, and projects, regardless of the CMMI representation used. The organization may implement components of CMMI models beyond those reported as part of equivalent staging. Equivalent staging is only a measure to relate how the organization is compared to other organizations in terms of maturity levels.

establish and maintain

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “establish and maintain” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

evidence

(See “objective evidence.”)

executive

(See “senior manager.”)

exit criteria

States of being that must be present before an effort can end successfully.

expected CMMI components

CMMI components that explain what may be done to satisfy a required CMMI component. Model users can implement the expected components explicitly or implement equivalent alternative practices to these components. Specific and generic practices are expected model components.

 

 

finding

(See “appraisal findings.”)

formal evaluation process

In the Decision Analysis and Resolution process area, see the definition of a “formal evaluation process” in the introductory notes.

framework

(See “CMMI Framework.”)

functional analysis

Examination of a defined function to identify all the subfunctions necessary to the accomplishment of that function; identification of functional relationships and interfaces (internal and external) and capturing these in a functional architecture; and flow down of upper level performance requirements and assignment of these requirements to lower level subfunctions. (See “functional architecture.”)

functional architecture

The hierarchical arrangement of functions, their internal and external (external to the aggregation itself) functional interfaces and external physical interfaces, their respective functional and performance requirements, and their design constraints.

 

 

generic goal

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “generic goal” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

generic practice

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “generic practice” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

generic practice elaboration

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “generic practice elaboration” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

goal

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “goal” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

 

 

incomplete process

A process that is not performed or is only performed partially (also known as capability level 0). One or more of the specific goals of the process area are not satisfied.

independent group

In the Process and Product Quality Assurance process area, see the discussion of a “group that is independent” in the introductory notes.

informative CMMI components

CMMI components that help model users understand the required and expected components of a model. These components may contain examples, detailed explanations, or other helpful information. Subpractices, notes, references, goal titles, practice titles, sources, typical work products, discipline amplifications, and generic practice elaborations are informative model components.

institutionalization

The ingrained way of doing business that an organization follows routinely as part of its corporate culture.

Integrated Product and Process Development

A systematic approach to product development that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the product life cycle to better satisfy customer needs.

integrated team

A group of people with complementary skills and expertise who are committed to delivering specified work products in timely collaboration. Integrated team members provide skills and advocacy appropriate to all phases of the work products’ life and are collectively responsible for delivering the work products as specified. An integrated team should include empowered representatives from organizations, disciplines, and functions that have a stake in the success of the work products.

interface control

In configuration management, the process of (1) identifying all functional and physical characteristics relevant to the interfacing of two or more configuration items provided by one or more organizations, and (2) ensuring that the proposed changes to these characteristics are evaluated and approved prior to implementation. [IEEE 828-1983] (See “configuration management” and “configuration item.”)

 

 

lead appraiser

As used in the CMMI Product Suite, a person who has achieved recognition from an authorizing body to perform as an appraisal team leader for a particular appraisal method.

life-cycle model

A partitioning of the life of a product into phases that guide the project from identifying customer needs through product retirement.

 

 

managed process

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “managed process” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

manager

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “manager” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

maturity level

Degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas in which all goals within the set are attained. (See “capability level” and “process area.”)

memorandum of agreement

Binding documents of understanding or agreements between two or more parties. (Also known as a “memorandum of understanding.”)

 

 

natural bounds

The inherent process reflected by measures of process performance, sometimes referred to as “voice of the process.” Techniques such as control charts, confidence intervals, and prediction intervals are used to determine whether the variation is due to common causes (i.e., the process is predictable or “stable”) or is due to some special cause that can and should be identified and removed.

non-developmental item

An item of supply that was developed previous to its current use in an acquisition or development process. Such an item may require minor modifications to meet the requirements of its current intended use.

nontechnical requirements

Contractual provisions, commitments, conditions, and terms that affect how products or services are to be acquired. Examples include products to be delivered, data rights for delivered commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-developmental items (NDIs), delivery dates, and milestones with exit criteria. Other nontechnical requirements include training requirements, site requirements, and deployment schedules.

 

 

objective

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “objective” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

objective evidence

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, qualitative or quantitative information, records, or statements of fact pertaining to the characteristics of an item or service or to the existence and implementation of a process element, which are based on observation, measurement, or test and which are verifiable.

objectively evaluate

To review activities and work products against criteria that minimize subjectivity and bias by the reviewer. An example of an objective evaluation is an audit against requirements, standards, or procedures by an independent quality assurance function. (See “audit.”)

observation

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, a written record that represents the appraisal team members’ understanding of information either seen or heard during the appraisal data collection activities. The written record may take the form of a statement or may take alternative forms as long as the information content is preserved.

operational concept

A general description of the way in which an entity is used or operates. (Also known as “concept of operations.”)

operational scenario

A description of an imagined sequence of events that includes the interaction of the product with its environment and users, as well as interaction among its product components. Operational scenarios are used to evaluate the requirements and design of the system and to verify and validate the system.

optimizing process

A quantitatively managed process that is improved based on an understanding of the common causes of variation inherent in the process. A process that focuses on continually improving the range of process performance through both incremental and innovative improvements. (See “quantitatively managed process,” “defined process,” and “common cause of process variation.”)

organization

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organization” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

organization’s business objectives

Senior-management-developed strategies designed to ensure an organization's continued existence and enhance its profitability, market share, and other factors influencing the organization’s success. (See “quantitative objective” and “quality and process-performance objectives.”)

Such objectives may include reducing the number of change requests during a system's integration phase, reducing development cycle time, increasing the number of errors found in a product’s first or second phase of development, reducing the number of customer-reported defects, etc., when applied to systems-engineering activities.

organization’s measurement repository

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organization’s measurement repository” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

organization’s process asset library

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organization’s process asset library” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

organization's set of standard processes

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organization’s set of standard processes” is used in the CMMI Product Suite. (See “defined process” and “process element.”)

organizational maturity

The extent to which an organization has explicitly and consistently deployed processes that are documented, managed, measured, controlled, and continually improved. Organizational maturity may be measured via appraisals.

organizational policy

A guiding principle typically established by senior management that is adopted by an organization to influence and determine decisions.

organizational process assets

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “organizational process assets” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

organizational unit

That part of an organization that is the subject of an appraisal (also known as the organizational scope of the appraisal).

An organizational unit deploys one or more processes that have a coherent process context and operates within a coherent set of business objectives. An organizational unit is typically part of a larger organization, although in a small organization, the organizational unit may be the whole organization.

outsourcing

(See “acquisition.”)

 

 

peer review

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “peer review” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

performance parameters

The measures of effectiveness and other key measures used to guide and control progressive development.

performed process

A process that accomplishes the needed work to produce identified output work products using identified input work products (also known as capability level 1). The specific goals of the process area are satisfied.

planned process

A process that is documented both by a description and a plan. The description and plan should be coordinated, and the plan should include standards, requirements, objectives, resources, assignments, etc.

policy

(See “organizational policy.”)

process

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “process” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

process action plan

In the Organizational Process Focus process area, see the definition of “process action plan” in the introductory notes.

process action team

A team that has the responsibility to develop and implement process-improvement activities for an organization as documented in the process-improvement action plan.

process and technology improvements

In the Organizational Innovation and Deployment process area, see the discussion of “process and technology improvements” in the introductory notes.

process architectures

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “process architectures” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

process area

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “process area” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

process asset

Anything that the organization considers useful in attaining the goals of a process area. (See “organizational process assets.”)

process asset library

A collection of process asset holdings that can be used by an organization or project. (See “organization’s process asset library.”)

process attribute

A measurable characteristic of process capability applicable to any process.

process capability

The range of expected results that can be achieved by following a process. [EIA/IS 731, V1.0]

process context

The set of factors, documented in the appraisal input, that influences the judgment and comparability of appraisal ratings.

These include, but are not limited to, the size of the organizational unit to be appraised; the demographics of the organizational unit; the application discipline of the products or services; the size, criticality, and complexity of the products or services; and the quality characteristics of the products or services.

process definition

The act of defining and describing a process. The result of process definition is a process description. (See “process description.”)

process description

A documented expression of a set of activities performed to achieve a given purpose that provides an operational definition of the major components of a process. The documentation specifies, in a complete, precise, and verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a process. It also may include procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Process descriptions may be found at the activity, project, or organizational level.

process element

The fundamental unit of a process. A process may be defined in terms of subprocesses or process elements. A subprocess can be further decomposed; a process element cannot.

Each process element covers a closely related set of activities (for example, estimating element, peer review element). Process elements can be portrayed using templates to be completed, abstractions to be refined, or descriptions to be modified or used. A process element can be an activity or task.

process group

A collection of specialists that facilitate the definition, maintenance, and improvement of the process(es) used by the organization.

process improvement

A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization's processes, and the results of such a program.

process-improvement objectives

A set of target characteristics established to guide the effort to improve an existing process in a specific measurable way either in terms of resultant product characteristics (e.g., quality, performance, conformance to standards, etc.) or in the way in which the process is executed (e.g., elimination of redundant process steps, combining process steps, improving cycle time, etc.). (See “quantitative objective” and “organization's business objectives.”)

process-improvement plan

In the Organizational Process Focus process area, see the definition of “process-improvement plan” in the introductory notes.

process measurement

The set of definitions, methods, and activities used to take measurements of a process and its resulting products for the purpose of characterizing and understanding the process.

process owner

The person (or team) responsible for defining and maintaining a process. At the organizational level, the process owner is the person (or team) responsible for the description of a standard process; at the project level, the process owner is the person (or team) responsible for the description of the defined process. A process may therefore have multiple owners at different levels of responsibility. (See “standard process” and “defined process.”)

process performance

A measure of actual results achieved by following a process. It is characterized by both process measures (e.g., effort, cycle time, and defect removal efficiency) and product measures (e.g., reliability, defect density, and response time).

process performance baseline

A documented characterization of the actual results achieved by following a process, which is used as a benchmark for comparing actual process performance against expected process performance. (See “process performance.”)

process performance model

A description of the relationships among attributes of a process and its work products that are developed from historical process performance data and calibrated using collected process and product measures from the project and which are used to predict results to be achieved by following a process.

process tailoring

To make, alter, or adapt a process description for a particular end. For example, a project tailors its defined process from the organization's set of standard processes to meet the objectives, constraints, and environment of the project. (See “process description,” “organization's set of standard processes,” and “defined process.”)

product

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “product” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

product baseline

In configuration management, the initial approved technical data package (including, for software, the source code listing) defining a configuration item during the production, operation, maintenance, and logistic support of its life cycle. (See “configuration management” and “configuration item.”)

product component

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “product component” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

product-component requirements

Product-component requirements provide a complete specification of a product component, including fit, form, function, performance, and any other requirement.

product life cycle

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “product life cycle” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

product line

A group of products sharing a common, managed set of features that satisfy specific needs of a selected market or mission.

product-related life-cycle processes

Processes associated with a product throughout one or more phases of its life (i.e., from conception through disposal), such as the manufacturing and support processes.

product requirements

A refinement of the customer requirements into the developers' language, making implicit requirements into explicit derived requirements. (See “product-component requirements” and “derived requirements.”) The developer uses the product requirements to guide the design and building of the product.

product suite

(See “CMMI Product Suite.”)

profile

(See “achievement profile” and “target profile.”)

program

(1) A project. (2) A collection of related projects and the infrastructure that supports them, including objectives, methods, activities, plans, and success measures. (See “project.”)

project

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “project” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

project manager

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “project manager” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

project plan

In the Project Planning process area, see the definition of “project plan” in the introductory notes.

project progress and performance

What a project achieves with respect to implementing project plans, including effort, cost, schedule, and technical performance.

project's defined process

In the Integrated Project Management process area, see the definition of “project’s defined process” in the introductory notes and in the Establish the Project's Defined Process specific practice.

prototype

A preliminary type, form, or instance of a product or product component that serves as a model for later stages or for the final, complete version of the product. This model (physical, electronic, digital, analytical, etc.) can be used for the following (and other) purposes:

·         assessing the feasibility of a new or unfamiliar technology

·         assessing or mitigating technical risk

·         validating requirements

·         demonstrating critical features

·         qualifying a product

·         qualifying a process

·         characterizing performance or product features

·         elucidating physical principles

 

 

quality

The ability of a set of inherent characteristics of a product, product component, or process to fulfill requirements of customers.

quality and process-performance objectives

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “quality and process-performance objectives” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

quality assurance

A planned and systematic means for assuring management that defined standards, practices, procedures, and methods of the process are applied.

quality control

The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality. [ISO 8402-1994] (See “quality assurance.”)

quantitative objective

Desired target value expressed as quantitative measures. (See “quality and process-performance objectives” and “process-improvement objectives.”)

quantitatively managed process

A defined process that is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. The product quality, service quality, and process performance attributes are measurable and controlled throughout the project. (See “optimizing process,” “defined process,” and “statistically managed process.”)

 

 

rating

(See “appraisal rating.”)

reference

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “reference” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

reference model

A model that is used as a benchmark for measuring some attribute.

relevant stakeholder

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “relevant stakeholder” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

representation

In Chapter 1, see the definitions of “staged representation” and “continuous representation.”

required CMMI components

CMMI components that are essential to achieving process improvement in a given process area. These components are used in appraisals to determine process capability. Specific goals and generic goals are required model components.

requirement

(1) A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. (2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a product or product component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents. (3) A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2). [IEEE 610.12-1990]

requirements analysis

The determination of product-specific performance and functional characteristics based on analyses of customer needs, expectations, and constraints; operational concept; projected utilization environments for people, products, and processes; and measures of effectiveness.

requirements elicitation

Using systematic techniques, like prototypes and structured surveys, to proactively identify and document customer and end-user needs.

requirements management

The management of all requirements received by or generated by the project, including both technical and nontechnical requirements as well as those requirements levied on the project by the organization.

requirements traceability

The evidence of an association between a requirement and its source requirement, its implementation, and its verification.

return on investment

The ratio of revenue from output (product) to production costs, which determines whether an organization benefits from performing an action to produce something.

risk analysis

The evaluation, classification, and prioritization of risks.

risk identification

An organized, thorough approach to seek out probable or realistic risks in achieving objectives.

risk management

An organized, analytic process to identify what might cause harm or loss (identify risks), assess and quantify the identified risks, and to develop and, if needed, implement an appropriate approach to prevent or handle risk causes that could result in significant harm or loss.

risk management strategy

An organized, technical approach to identify what might cause harm or loss (identify risks), assess and quantify the identified risks, and to develop and if needed implement an appropriate approach to prevent or handle risk causes that could result in significant harm or loss. Typically, risk management is performed for project, organization, or product-developing organizational units.

root cause

A root cause is a source of a defect such that if it is removed, the defect is decreased or removed.

 

 

senior manager

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “senior manager” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

shared vision

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “shared vision” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

software engineering

(1) The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. (2) The study of approaches as in (1).

solicitation

The process of preparing a solicitation package and selecting a supplier (contractor).

solicitation package

A formal document delineating technical and nontechnical requirements that is used to request offers on invitations for bids (bids) and requests for proposal (proposals), or to request statements of capabilities and price quotations (quotes). It is otherwise used as a basis for selecting a supply source or sources to provide products or services.

special cause of process variation

A cause of a defect that is specific to some transient circumstance and not an inherent part of a process. (See “common cause of process variation.”)

specific goal

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “specific goal” is used in the CMMI Product Suite. (See “process area,” “capability level,” “generic goal,” “quantitative objective,” and “organization's business objectives.”)

specific practice

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “specific practice” is used in the CMMI Product Suite. (See “process area” and “specific goal.”)

stable process

The state in which all special causes of process variation have been removed and prevented from recurring so that only the common causes of process variation of the process remain. (See “special cause of process variation,” “common cause of variation,” “standard process,” “statistically managed process,” and “capable process.”)

staged representation

A model structure wherein attaining the goals of a set of process areas establishes a maturity level; each level builds a foundation for subsequent levels. (See “process area” and “maturity level.”)

stakeholder

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “stakeholder” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

standard

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “standard” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

standard process

An operational definition of the basic process that guides the establishment of a common process in an organization. [ISO/IEC 15504-9]

A standard process describes the fundamental process elements that are expected to be incorporated into any defined process. It also describes the relationships (e.g., ordering and interfaces) between these process elements. (See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “defined process” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.)

statement of work

A description of contracted work required to complete a project.

statistical predictability

The performance of a quantitative process that is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.

statistical process control

Statistically based analysis of a process and measurements of process performance, which will identify common and special causes of variation in the process performance, and maintain process performance within limits. (See “common cause of process variation,” “statistically managed process,” and “special cause of process variation.”)

statistical techniques

An analytic technique that employs statistical methods (e.g., statistical process control, confidence intervals, prediction intervals).

statistically managed process

A process that is managed by a statistically based technique in which processes are analyzed, special causes of process variation are identified, and performance is contained within well-defined limits. (See “stable process,” “standard process,” “statistical process control,” “capable process,” and “special cause of process variation.”)

strength

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, an exemplary or noteworthy implementation of a CMMI model practice.

subpractice

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “subpractice” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

subprocess

A process that is part of a larger process. (See “process description.”)

supplier

(1) An entity delivering products or performing services being acquired. (2) An individual, partnership, company, corporation, association, or other service having an agreement (contract) with an acquirer for the design, development, manufacture, maintenance, modification, or supply of items under the terms of an agreement (contract).

sustainment

The processes used to ensure that a product can be utilized operationally by its end users or customers. Sustainment ensures that maintenance is done such that the product is in an operable condition whether the product is in use or not by customers or end users.

systems engineering

The interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform a set of customer needs, expectations, and constraints into a product solution and support that solution throughout the product’s life.

This includes the definition of technical performance measures, the integration of engineering specialties towards the establishment of a product architecture, and the definition of supporting life-cycle processes that balance cost, performance, and schedule objectives.

 

 

tailoring guidelines

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “tailoring guidelines” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

target profile

In the continuous representation, a list of process areas and their corresponding capability levels that represent an objective for process improvement. (See “capability level profile” and “achievement profile.”)

target staging

In the continuous representation, a sequence of target profiles that describes the path of process improvement to be followed by the organization. (See “capability level profile,” “achievement profile,” and “target profile.”)

technical data package

A collection of items that may include the following if such information is appropriate to the type of product and product component (for example, material and manufacturing requirements may not be useful for product components associated with software services or processes):

·         product architecture description

·         allocated requirements

·         product-component descriptions

·         product-related life-cycle process descriptions if not described as separate product components

·         key product characteristics

·         required physical characteristics and constraints

·         interface requirements

·         materials requirements (bills or material and material characteristics)

·         fabrication and manufacturing requirements (for both the original equipment manufacturer and field support)

·         the verification criteria used to ensure requirements have been achieved

·         conditions of use (environments) and operating/usage scenarios, modes and states for operations, support, training, manufacturing, disposal, and verifications throughout the life of the product

·         rationale for decisions and characteristics (requirements, requirement allocations; design choices)

technical requirements

Properties (attributes) of products or services to be acquired or developed.

test procedure

Detailed instructions for the setup, execution, and evaluation of results for a given test.

traceability

(See “requirements traceability.”)

trade study

An evaluation of alternatives based on criteria and systematic analysis, to select the best alternative for attaining determined objectives.

training

In the Organizational Training process area, see the definition of “training” in the introductory notes.

typical work product

See Chapter 2 for an explanation of how “typical work product” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

 

 

unit testing

Testing of individual hardware or software units or groups of related units. (See “acceptance testing.”)

 

 

validation

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “validation” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

verification

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “verification” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

verifying implementation

A common feature of CMMI model process areas with a staged representation that groups the generic practices related to review by higher level management, and objective evaluation of conformance to process descriptions, procedures, and standards.

version control

The establishment and maintenance of baselines and the identification of changes to baselines that make it possible to return to the previous baseline.

 

 

weakness

As used in CMMI appraisal materials, the ineffective, or lack of, implementation of one or more CMMI model practices.

work breakdown structure

An arrangement of work elements and their relationship to each other and to the end product.

work product

See Chapter 3 for an explanation of how “work product” is used in the CMMI Product Suite.

work product and task attributes

Characteristics of products, services, and project tasks used to help in estimating project work. These characteristics include items such as size, complexity, weight, form, fit, or function. They are typically used as one input to deriving other project and resource estimates (e.g., effort, cost, schedule).